market demand

How to Analyze Market Demand: A Step-by-Step Guide for Entrepreneurs

Kurt GraverBusiness Start-up Advice, Business Success Formula, Marketing & Sales

As an entrepreneur, one of the most critical factors in determining the success of your venture is understanding and analyzing market demand. Market demand refers to the total amount of goods or services that customers can purchase at a given price point. According to a study by CB Insights, startups fail due to misreading market demand, with 42% of failures attributed to this factor (CB Insights, 2019).

Assessing market demand is crucial for several reasons. First, it helps you validate whether there is sufficient interest and need for your product or service. Second, it informs your pricing, marketing, and sales strategies, allowing you to optimize your offerings and messaging for maximum impact. Third, it helps you forecast revenue potential and plan for growth.

In this step-by-step guide, we’ll explore the key concepts, methods, and tools for analyzing market demand as an entrepreneur. Whether you’re just starting or looking to expand your existing business, this guide will provide a comprehensive framework for assessing and understanding the demand for your products or services. By the end of this guide, you’ll have the knowledge and skills to make data-driven decisions that drive your venture’s growth and success.

Step 1: Define Your Target Market

The first step in analyzing market demand is clearly defining your target market. Your target market is the specific group of customers that you aim to serve with your product or service. It’s important to be as specific as possible when defining your target market, as this will help you focus your research and analysis efforts.

To define your target market, consider the following factors:

  • Demographics: Age, gender, income, education, occupation, and other socioeconomic characteristics that define your ideal customer.
  • Psychographics: Values, attitudes, interests, and lifestyle preferences that influence your target customers’ purchasing decisions.
  • Behaviours: Purchasing habits, brand loyalties, and other actions that characterize your target customers’ interactions with your product or service category.
  • Geography: The geographic location and scope of your target market, whether local, regional, national, or international.

For example, you’re an entrepreneur launching a new line of organic, plant-based protein bars. Your target market might be health-conscious millennials aged 25-35, living in urban areas, interested in fitness and sustainability, and willing to pay a premium for high-quality, ethical products.

By clearly defining your target market, you can ensure that your demand analysis efforts are focused, relevant, and actionable.

Step 2: Conduct Market Research

Once you have defined your target market, the next step is to conduct market research to gather data and insights on demand drivers, trends, and opportunities. Market research can be divided into two main categories: primary research and secondary research.

Primary Research

Primary research involves gathering data directly from your target customers or market. This can include:

  • Surveys: These are online or in-person questionnaires that ask customers about their needs, preferences, and behaviours related to your product or service category.
  • Interviews: One-on-one conversations with customers or industry experts to gain deeper insights into market trends, pain points, and opportunities.
  • Focus groups are small discussions with representative customers that explore attitudes, perceptions, and reactions to your product or service concept.
  • Observation: In-person or virtual observation of customers interacting with your product or service category to identify unmet needs and usage patterns.

Primary research provides valuable, first-hand insights into customer demand, but it can be time-consuming and resource-intensive to conduct at scale.

Secondary Research

Secondary research involves gathering data from existing sources, such as:

  • Industry reports: Market research reports from consulting firms, trade associations, and other expert sources that provide data and analysis on market size, growth, and trends.
  • Government data: Economic and demographic data from government agencies such as the U.S. Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, and International Trade Administration.
  • Competitor analysis: Analysis of competitor offerings, pricing, and marketing strategies to identify gaps and opportunities in the market.
  • Online research: Analysis of search trends, social media conversations, and online reviews related to your product or service category.

Secondary research is often more efficient and cost-effective than primary research, but it may not be as targeted or actionable for your specific venture.

The key to effective market research is to use a combination of primary and secondary sources to triangulate and validate your findings. By gathering data from multiple perspectives, you can develop a more comprehensive and reliable view of market demand.

Step 3: Analyze Market Size and Growth

Once you have gathered market research data, the next step is to analyze the size and growth potential of your target market. Market size refers to the total amount of revenue or unit sales generated by your product or service category in a given period. Market growth refers to the rate at which that revenue or unit sales is increasing over time.

To analyze market size and growth, consider the following metrics:

  • Total Addressable Market (TAM): The total revenue opportunity for your product or service category, assuming 100% market share. TAM can be calculated by multiplying the total number of potential customers by the average revenue per customer.
  • Serviceable Available Market (SAM): The portion of the TAM that you can realistically target and serve with your current resources and capabilities. SAM can be calculated by applying filters to the TAM based on factors such as geography, customer segment, and product/service fit.
  • Serviceable Obtainable Market (SOM): The portion of the SAM that you can realistically capture and convert into customers, given your current stage and competition. SOM can be calculated by estimating your achievable market share within the SAM.

For example, let’s say your organic, plant-based protein bar venture is targeting the U.S. market. Your market research indicates that the total U.S. protein bar market is $1 billion, with a 5-year projected compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10%. Based on your target millennial customer segment and distribution capabilities, you estimate that your SAM is $200 million, and your SOM is $10 million in the first year, with a goal of capturing 5% of the SAM within 5 years.

By analyzing market size and growth, you can assess the overall attractiveness and potential of your target market, set realistic revenue and market share goals, and plan for long-term growth.

Step 4: Assess Market Fit

In addition to analyzing market size and growth, it’s important to assess the fit between your product or service and the demands and preferences of your target market. Market fit refers to the degree to which your offering meets the needs and expectations of potential customers.

To assess market fit, consider the following factors:

  • Customer pain points: What are the key problems, challenges, and frustrations that your target customers face in relation to your product or service category?
  • Customer preferences: What are the key features, benefits, and attributes that your target customers value and prioritize when making purchasing decisions?
  • Competitive landscape: How do your competitors’ offerings compare to yours in terms of features, pricing, and customer satisfaction? What are the key differentiators and advantages of your product or service?
  • Value proposition: How do you communicate and deliver meaningful value to your target customers in a way that sets you apart from competitors and drives demand?

One useful tool for assessing market fit is the Value Proposition Canvas, which helps you map out the key elements of your offering and how they align with customer needs and preferences.

To create a Value Proposition Canvas, follow these steps:

  1. Customer Profile: Identify your target customer segment and map out their key jobs, pains, and gains related to your product or service category.
  2. Value Map: Define the key products and services, pain relievers, and gain creators that your venture offers to address customer needs and preferences.
  3. Fit: Analyze the degree to which your value map aligns with your customer profile, and identify areas for improvement or innovation.

By assessing market fit, you can ensure that your product or service is well-positioned to meet customer demands, stand out in a competitive market, and drive sustainable growth.

Step 5: Forecast Demand and Revenue

Based on your market research, market sizing, and market fit analysis, the next step is to forecast demand and revenue for your product or service. Demand forecasting is the process of estimating the amount of customer demand for your offering over a specific time period, based on factors such as market trends, customer behavior, and marketing effectiveness.

To forecast demand and revenue, consider the following methods:

  • Top-down forecasting: Start with the total market size or SAM for your product or service category, and estimate your market share based on factors such as competition, value proposition, and growth rate. Multiply your estimated market share by the total market size or SAM to calculate your revenue potential.
  • Bottom-up forecasting: Estimate the number of potential customers in your target market, and multiply by the average revenue per customer based on your pricing strategy and expected purchase frequency. Add up the revenue potential for each customer segment to calculate your total revenue potential.
  • Analogous forecasting: Look at historical sales data for similar products or services in your market, and use those benchmarks to estimate your own demand and revenue potential. Adjust for factors such as market growth, competitive intensity, and product differentiation.

For example, let’s say your organic, plant-based protein bar venture is using a bottom-up forecasting approach. Your target millennial customer segment in the U.S. includes 10 million potential customers, based on demographic and psychographic data. Your market research indicates that the average protein bar customer purchases 2 boxes per month, at a price point of $24 per box. Based on your value proposition and marketing plan, you estimate that you can convert 1% of your target customers in the first year, and grow that share by 20% per year. Using these assumptions, your revenue forecast would be:

Year 1: 10,000,000 customers x 1% conversion rate x 2 boxes/month x $24/box x 12 months = $5,760,000
Year 2: $5,760,000 x 120% growth rate = $6,912,000
Year 3: $6,912,000 x 120% growth rate = $8,294,400

By forecasting demand and revenue, you can set realistic goals, allocate resources effectively, and plan for sustainable growth. However, it’s important to regularly review and adjust your forecasts based on actual market feedback and performance data, as market conditions and customer preferences can change over time.

Step 6: Monitor and Adapt to Market Changes

Market demand is not a static concept, but a dynamic and evolving landscape that requires continuous monitoring and adaptation. As an entrepreneur, it’s crucial to stay attuned to changes in customer needs, competitive dynamics, and market trends that could impact your business.

To monitor and adapt to market changes, consider the following strategies:

  • Customer feedback: Regularly solicit and analyze feedback from your customers through surveys, interviews, and user testing. Use this feedback to identify areas for improvement, unmet needs, and new opportunities for innovation.
  • Competitor analysis: Keep a close eye on your competitors’ offerings, pricing, and marketing strategies. Use this information to identify gaps in the market, anticipate potential threats, and stay ahead of the curve.
  • Market research: Continuously update your market research with the latest data and insights on market size, growth, and trends. Use this information to validate your assumptions, adjust your strategies, and identify new growth opportunities.
  • Agile experimentation: Embrace an agile and experimental mindset, testing new ideas and iterations in small, measurable ways before scaling up. Use data and feedback to quickly pivot and optimize your offerings based on market response.

By monitoring and adapting to market changes, you can ensure that your venture stays relevant, competitive, and growth-oriented over the long term.


Analyzing market demand is a critical skill for entrepreneurs looking to build successful and sustainable ventures. By defining your target market, conducting thorough research, analyzing market size and growth, assessing market fit, forecasting demand and revenue, and monitoring and adapting to market changes, you can make data-driven decisions that maximize your chances of success.

However, it’s important to remember that market demand analysis is not a one-time exercise, but an ongoing process that requires continuous learning, experimentation, and iteration. As an entrepreneur, you must be willing to challenge your assumptions, listen to your customers, and adapt your strategies based on real-world feedback and data.

Ultimately, the key to success in analyzing market demand is to stay curious, agile, and customer-centric. By putting your customers’ needs and preferences at the center of your decision-making, you can create products and services that truly resonate with your target market, drive sustainable growth, and make a meaningful impact in the world.

As you embark on your entrepreneurial journey, remember that analyzing market demand is just one piece of the puzzle. Equally important are factors such as product development, marketing, sales, and team building. By taking a holistic and data-driven approach to building your venture, you can navigate the challenges and opportunities of the market with confidence and resilience.