Triple Bottom Line

The Triple Bottom Line: Balancing Profit, People, and Planet for Business Success

Kurt GraverBusiness Development

In the era of climate change, social inequality, and increasing consumer awareness, businesses face a new reality: the traditional bottom line of profit is no longer enough. Today, companies are expected to balance their financial performance with their social and environmental impact, creating value for shareholders and all stakeholders. This is where the concept of the Triple Bottom Line comes in.

The Triple Bottom Line, or TBL or 3BL, is a framework that expands the traditional accounting bottom line to include two more “bottom lines”: social and environmental performance. It was first introduced by John Elkington, a British sustainability consultant, in his 1997 book “Cannibals with Forks: The Triple Bottom Line of 21st Century Business” (Elkington, 1997). Since then, the Triple Bottom Line has gained widespread recognition as a tool for businesses to assess and report their sustainability performance.

This blog post will explore the Triple-Bottom-Line concept, its benefits for businesses, and how UK entrepreneurs can integrate it into their strategies and operations. We will also look at case studies of British companies that have successfully adopted the triple-bottom-line approach and the lessons we can learn from them.

What is the Triple Bottom Line?

The Triple Bottom Line is a framework that expands the traditional notion of business success beyond financial profit to include social and environmental performance. It is based on the idea that businesses are responsible not just to their shareholders but to all stakeholders, including employees, customers, suppliers, communities, and the environment.

The three “bottom lines” of the Triple Bottom Line are:

  1. Profit: The traditional measure of business success, focusing on financial performance and shareholder value.
  2. People: The social dimension of business, including employee well-being, labour rights, diversity and inclusion, community engagement, and social impact.
  3. Planet: The environmental dimension of business, including resource efficiency, carbon emissions, waste reduction, and ecological footprint.

The Triple Bottom Line aims to create a more holistic and sustainable approach to business, where economic, social, and environmental considerations are integrated into decision-making and reporting. By balancing these three dimensions, businesses can create long-term value for all stakeholders while contributing to a more just and sustainable world.

Benefits of the Triple Bottom Line for Businesses

Adopting the Triple Bottom Line approach can bring many benefits for businesses in terms of financial performance and stakeholder relationships. Here are some of the key advantages:

  1. Companies prioritising social and environmental responsibility are often perceived as more trustworthy, ethical, and forward-thinking by consumers, investors, and other stakeholders. This can increase brand loyalty, customer acquisition, and investor confidence. According to a 2021 survey by Deloitte, 28% of UK consumers have stopped purchasing from a brand due to ethical or sustainability-related concerns (Deloitte, 2021).
  2. Businesses can identify and mitigate potential risks by considering their operations’ social and environmental impacts, such as reputational damage, legal liabilities, and supply chain disruptions. For example, companies proactively addressing labour rights issues in their supply chains are less likely to face consumer boycotts or regulatory sanctions.
  3. The triple-bottom-line approach can drive innovation by encouraging businesses to develop new products, services, and business models that meet social and environmental needs. This can help companies differentiate themselves and tap into new growth opportunities. A 2020 report by the Carbon Trust found that UK businesses prioritising sustainability are more likely to experience increased competitiveness and market share (Carbon Trust, 2020).
  4. Companies that strongly commit to social and environmental responsibility are often more attractive to top talent, especially among younger generations. A 2021 survey by Deloitte found that 49% of Gen Z and 44% of Millennial job seekers in the UK consider a company’s environmental and social impact when choosing an employer (Deloitte, 2021).
  5. The Triple Bottom Line approach emphasizes stakeholder engagement and collaboration, which can help businesses build trust and credibility with customers, employees, suppliers, communities, and other key stakeholders. This can increase loyalty, advocacy, and support for the company’s goals and initiatives.
  6. Investors increasingly consider environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors when making investment decisions. Companies that demonstrate strong performance on the Triple Bottom Line are often seen as less risky and more attractive to socially responsible investors. A 2021 report by PwC found that assets under management in ESG funds in the UK reached £71 billion in 2020, up from £29 billion in 2015 (PwC, 2021).

Challenges and Criticisms of the Triple Bottom Line

Despite the benefits of the Triple Bottom Line approach, there are also some challenges and criticisms that businesses need to be aware of:

  1. One of the main challenges of the Triple Bottom Line is measuring and reporting on social and environmental performance. Unlike financial metrics, which are well-established and standardised, social and environmental indicators can be more difficult to quantify and compare across companies and industries. This can lead to inconsistencies and a lack of transparency in sustainability reporting.
  2. Balancing the three dimensions of the Triple Bottom Line can involve trade-offs and difficult decisions. For example, investing in renewable energy or fair trade suppliers may increase costs in the short term, while the social and environmental benefits may not be immediately apparent. Businesses need to have a clear strategy and priorities for managing these trade-offs.
  3. Some critics argue that the Triple Bottom Line can be used as a form of greenwashing, where companies make superficial or misleading claims about their social and environmental performance without making substantive changes to their operations. This can undermine the credibility and effectiveness of the Triple Bottom Line approach.
  4. While the Triple Bottom Line can help businesses improve their social and environmental performance, it may have a limited impact on addressing systemic issues such as climate change, inequality, and human rights abuses. These issues require collective action and policy changes beyond the scope of individual companies.

Implementing the Triple Bottom Line: A Step-by-Step Guide

Despite the challenges, many UK businesses are successfully adopting the Triple Bottom Line approach and reaping the benefits. Here is a step-by-step guide for entrepreneurs looking to integrate the Triple Bottom Line into their strategies and operations:

  1. Start by identifying the social and environmental issues that are most relevant and material to your business and stakeholders. Conduct a materiality assessment to prioritise the issues based on their importance and potential impact. Set clear and measurable goals for each dimension of the Triple Bottom Line, aligned with your overall business strategy.
  2. Engage with your key stakeholders, including employees, customers, suppliers, communities, and investors, to understand their expectations and concerns related to social and environmental responsibility. Use their feedback to inform your goals and strategies and transparently communicate your progress and challenges.
  3. Embed social and environmental considerations into your core business processes, from product design and sourcing to manufacturing and distribution. Develop policies and procedures to ensure compliance with social and environmental standards, such as the UK Modern Slavery Act and the Paris Agreement on climate change. Train your employees on sustainability and empower them to contribute ideas and solutions.
  4. Establish key performance indicators (KPIs) and metrics to track your progress on each dimension of the Triple Bottom Line. Use recognised sustainability reporting frameworks, such as the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB), to ensure consistency and comparability. Seek third-party assurance to validate your data and enhance credibility.
  5. Collaborate with other businesses, NGOs, and government agencies to address shared challenges and opportunities related to sustainability. Participate in industry initiatives and partnerships, such as the UK Plastics Pact and the Science Based Targets initiative, to drive collective action and innovation. Explore new business models and technologies that can create social and environmental value, such as circular economy and renewable energy.
  6. Communicate your sustainability performance and impact to your stakeholders through regular reports, websites, and social media. Use storytelling and case studies to showcase your successes and challenges and engage your customers and employees in your sustainability journey. Advocate for policies and regulations supporting sustainable business practices, such as carbon pricing and finance.

Case Studies of UK Companies Adopting the Triple Bottom Line

Here are some examples of UK companies that have successfully integrated the Triple Bottom Line into their strategies and operations:

Unilever: The consumer goods giant has set ambitious sustainability targets, such as sourcing 100% of its agricultural raw materials sustainably and helping 1 billion people improve their health and well-being by 2020. Unilever’s Sustainable Living brands, which integrate social and environmental purposes, have consistently outperformed the rest of the business, growing 69% faster than the company average in 2018 (Unilever, 2019).

Marks & Spencer: The retailer has a long-standing commitment to sustainability, with its Plan A strategy covering 100 social and environmental goals, from reducing food waste to supporting community projects. In 2020, M&S became the first major retailer to introduce a reusable container scheme for online grocery orders as part of its efforts to reduce single-use plastics (Marks & Spencer, 2021).

Innocent Drinks: The smoothie and juice company has built its brand on sustainability and ethical sourcing. It is committed to using 100% renewable energy and donating 10% of profits to charity. Innocent also works closely with its suppliers to improve social and environmental standards, such as providing training and support for small-scale farmers (Innocent Drinks, 2021).

Bulb: The renewable energy supplier has disrupted the UK energy market with its 100% renewable electricity and carbon-neutral gas, transparent pricing, and excellent customer service. Bulb has also launched a carbon calculator tool to help customers understand and reduce their carbon footprint and invest in community energy projects in the UK and abroad (Bulb, 2021).


The Triple Bottom Line is a powerful framework for businesses to create long-term value by balancing their financial, social, and environmental performance. By adopting this approach, UK entrepreneurs can improve their resilience and competitiveness and contribute to a more sustainable and inclusive economy.

As the case studies show, integrating the Triple Bottom Line into business strategies and operations requires a holistic and systemic approach involving stakeholder engagement, innovation, collaboration, and transparency. It also involves challenges and trade-offs, such as measuring and reporting on social and environmental impact and balancing short-term costs with long-term benefits.

However, the benefits of the Triple Bottom Line are clear and compelling, from enhanced reputation and risk management to increased innovation and access to capital. As the expectations and demands of consumers, investors, and regulators continue to evolve, businesses that prioritise the Triple Bottom Line will be better positioned to thrive in the long term.

For UK entrepreneurs looking to adopt the Triple Bottom Line approach, the key is to start small and build gradually, focusing on the issues and opportunities that are most material and relevant to their business and stakeholders. By setting clear goals, engaging stakeholders, integrating sustainability into operations, measuring and reporting progress, collaborating and innovating, and communicating and advocating for change, businesses can positively impact people, the planet, and profit.

The Triple Bottom Line is a nice-to-have and a strategic imperative for businesses of all sizes and sectors. As John Elkington put it, “The Triple Bottom Line is not about trading off one dimension for another, but about optimizing all three. It’s about creating value for shareholders, but also for stakeholders and society as a whole” (Elkington, 2018).

In the words of Paul Polman, former CEO of Unilever and a leading advocate for sustainable business, “The Triple Bottom Line is not just about doing less harm, but about doing more good. It’s about creating a positive impact on the world, and leaving it a better place than we found it” (Polman, 2019).

As UK entrepreneurs, we have a unique opportunity and responsibility to create a more sustainable and inclusive economy that works for people, the planet, and profit. By embracing the Triple Bottom Line, we can build successful and resilient businesses and contribute to a better future for all.


Bulb. (2021). Our energy.

Carbon Trust. (2020). The business case for sustainability.

Deloitte. (2021). Shifting sands: How consumer behaviour is embracing sustainability.

Elkington, J. (1997). Cannibals with forks: The triple bottom line of 21st-century business. Capstone.

Elkington, J. (2018). 25 years ago, I coined the phrase “Triple Bottom Line.” Here’s why it’s time to rethink it. Harvard Business Review.

Innocent Drinks. (2021). Sustainability.

Marks & Spencer. (2021). M&S launches new contactless, reusable container scheme for online grocery orders.

Polman, P. (2019). The business case for sustainability. Stanford Social Innovation Review.

PwC. (2021). 2022 Sustainability Trends: The growing importance of ESG in business strategy.

Unilever. (2019). Unilever’s purpose-led brands outperform.

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